Describe the 4 most common elements found in each nursing theory and how “knowing” is related to theory foundation.
McKenna (2017) mentions that theories are made up of concepts, variables, statements, and formats. However, specific to nursing there are 4 common elements that are found in each nursing theory. These elements are the person, environment, health, and nursing. The person is basically the one that will receive the care. (McKenna, 1997). This person can either be viewed in terms of an individual client, family, or a whole community. (McKenna, 1997). The environment is the physical environment or can also be a particular situation. (McKenna, 1997). Health is most defined as a concept that includes the exchange or interaction between the person, environment, and the nurse. (McKenna, 1997). Nursing is defined as the diagnosis, care, and treatment of human responses to potential or actual problems which is in contrast to Medical Care that is based on a medical diagnosis. (McKenna, 1997). Within the concept of nursing, the nurse should create an “individualized plan of care” that is based on the patient’s personalized needs, their environment, and their current level of health. (McKenna, 1997).
Furthermore, according to Christensen (2011), knowledge can be considered Theoretical, which is “knowing-that” or Practical which is “knowing-how”. (Christensen, 2011). Knowing is related to theory foundation in the form of the inclusion of many different things. (Christensen, 2011). These points include things that are already known from many different written sources or media, things that are known from personal experiences, and things that are related to the common elements in nursing theory that are person, environment, health, and nursing. (Christensen, 2011).
Briefly describe the 4 types of theories in nursing and their purpose.
Theories in nursing according to Butts & Rich (2022), can be differentiated in many different ways depending on which sources are referenced. (Butts & Rich, 2022). However, they claim that the 4 types of theories in nursing are Descriptive, Predictive, Explanatory, and Prescriptive. (Butts & Rich, 2022). The purpose of descriptive theory is to present information and usually just involves one particular component. (McKenna, 1997). The purpose of predictive theory is to confirm knowledge and usually is the cause & effect relationship between 2 or more components. (McKenna, 1997). The purpose of explanatory theory is to build knowledge and usually involves 2 components that relate to each other in a specific way. (McKenna, 1997). The purpose of prescriptive theory is to utilize knowledge that builds on descriptive, explanatory, and predictive theories and goes beyond just cause & effect. (McKenna, 1997).
Choose one theory and briefly apply it to your chosen DNP CSP topic, explaining the type of theory it is and demonstrating the links of the theory elements to your clinical problem. (It should be clear that this is an appropriate theory for use in your clinical area and reflects your personal theoretical framework for advanced practice nursing.
One theory in mind is Martha Rogers and her model of unitary human beings based on the concepts of systems theory. (Aranha, 2015). This model and theory apply to my potential choice topic for my DNP Clinical Scholarly Project which is decreasing the prevalence of suicide with the use of new and advanced technologies; this is what describes my clinical problem and also addresses a cause & effect relationship. Thus, this particular model and theory is considered to be a prescriptive theory because my goal is to utilize the knowledge that goes beyond all comparative components and cause & effect. (Butts & Rich, 2022).
In Martha Roger’s model and theory known as the Science of Unitary Human Beings is centralized in the idea of how humans are intertwined with their environments and how this interaction comprises of different organizational patterns that are transmitted through waves. (Aranha, 2015). Different components that are also significant in Martha Roger’s model are “the use of energy fields, openness, patterns, and pan dimensionality as the building blocks”. (Aranha, 2015). Rogers theorized that “the universe is an open system within which individuals and their environment interact independently and continuously.” (Aranha, 2015). Applying this theory to the person, is seen as a “unified whole” or energy field that is comprised as whole and is “different from the sum of its parts,” which is the community or the suicidal population. (McKenna, 1997). Applying this theory to Nursing, which is seen as a profession that will maintain & promote health for the sick and disabled, or the methods that will help to decrease incidence of suicide. (McKenna, 1997). Applying this theory to health, it is defined by the community to classify behaviors as either high or low in value, which are the emerging technology tools used to compare and contrast the suicide prevention methods that are utilized. (McKenna, 1997). Lastly, applying this theory to the environment, means that there is a “Four-Dimensional negatrophic energy field identified by pattern, organization, and encompassing all that is outside any given field,” which will comprise of the descriptive visualization of technological methods utilized. (McKenna, 1997).