Writing Frame for Task 1
Explore the relevant research into the causal theories of dyslexia and explain the difficulties that learners with dyslexia may experience and the impact of these difficulties on learning.
The purpose of this activity is for you to demonstrate your ability to undertake an academic piece of research and create an “academic style” essay. It is an opportunity for you to explore key theories of dyslexia, namely:
• The Phonological Deficit Theory including the Double Deficit Theory
• The Magnocellular Theory
• The Cerebellar Theory
• And other contributing factors such as working memory, processing speed and hereditary factors.
It is essential that you read Sir Jim Rose’s Review which as available on the course website in the resources section:
Rose, J. (2009) Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties. Available at: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ukgwa/20130321060616/https:/www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/00659-2009DOM-EN.pdf
(Accessed: 20 Sept 2021).
We recommend that a good starting point (before extending your reading of the main theorists) is to develop an overview of the theories and research by reading the following chapters from the key textbooks:
• Chapters 1 & 2 in:
Reid, G. (2016) Dyslexia: A Practitioner’s Handbook. 5th edn. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
• Chapters 1, 2 & 3 in:
Kelly, K. and Philips, S. (2016) Teaching Literacy to Learners with Dyslexia. 2nd edn. London: Sage.
Brief overview of what you are going to write about
What is dyslexia? Include the Rose Definition and the BDA addition to the definition found on the BDA website.
• What is the Phonological Theory?
• Define the components of phonological processing (i.e. phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid naming).
• Discuss the findings in this area (Snowling, Muter, Hulme, Ramus, Goswami, Shaywitz etc).
• Explain the difficulties that learners with dyslexia may have with phonological processing and the impact it has on learning and literacy development.
• What is the Double Deficit Theory? (i.e phonological awareness and rapid naming (Wolf & Bowers))
• What is Asynchrony Phenomenon? ( i.e. processing speed (Breznitz))
• Explain the difficulties that learners with dyslexia may have with processing speed and the impact it has on learning and literacy development.
• What is the Magnocellular Theory?
• Discuss the findings in this area (e.g Stein).
• Explain the difficulties that learners with dyslexia will have with visual and auditory processing and the impact it has on learning and literacy development.
• What is the Cerebellar Theory?
• Discuss the findings in this area (Fawcett and Nicholson).
• Explain the difficulties that learners with dyslexia may have with developing automaticity and the impact if has on literacy development.
• What is working memory? note this is not a causal theory
• Discuss the findings in this area (Alloway and Gathercole, Baddeley).
• Explain the difficulties that learners with dyslexia may have with working memory and the impact is has on learning and literacy development.
• What is meant by ‘good oral language? Please note this is not a causal theory
• Discuss the findings in this area (Snowling).
• Explain why enriched language plays an important part in literacy development.
• Why is it important to consider hereditary factors/genetics?
• Define the Multiple Deficit Model? (Pennington)
• Explain why dyslexia is not likely to be dependent on one cause and that there is a high probably that it exists co-morbidly with other conditions.
Bring the main points and your ideas together. It is important to consider the overlapping nature of the theories.